By Gary England
Following on from the profitable structure of the former variants, Fertility and Obstetrics within the Horse 3e is a pragmatic and basic consultant to equine copy. From explaining the anatomy of the mares reproductive tract to detailing difficulties encountered while pregnant, it covers the entire significant components of outrage in addition to together with the newest advancements in diagnostic systems and therapy options.
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Extra resources for Fertility and Obstetrics in the Horse (Library Vet Practice)
Now has two CLs), the younger may not respond if it was the result of an ovulation less than ﬁve days ago; ᭺ Mares with a large follicle (or follicles) at the time of PG administration – this includes (a) mares in prolonged dioestrus and (b) mares with signiﬁcant follicular growth in a normal dioestrus – may ovulate rapidly (24–48 hours after treatment) without the mare showing signs of heat, or she may be in oestrus for only 12–36 hours after ovulation. These mares can be difﬁcult to breed (as they do not stand for the stallion at the appropriate time) and furthermore can be predisposed to poor uterine drainage (since there has been a lack of oestrogen effects on the reproductive tract – especially the cervix).
Uterus: endometrial folds enlarge and become oedematous. Uterus feels thickened, heavier and ‘doughy’ but not tonic (cf. cow). Cervix: feels soft and broad when fully relaxed. In some mares it may be soft cranially and ﬁrmer caudally. Usually shorter than during dioestrus. Visual examination of the vagina • The vulva may relax during oestrus, although this is not consistent. Some• • • • • times a slight mucoid discharge or yellow stain due to frequent urination is noted on the ventral vulval commissure.
Rectal palpation • Ovaries: mature follicles are generally large (>4 cm) and soft, and just • before ovulation may become very soft and tender. Occasionally follicles collapse during palpation of the ovary – this does not affect fertility; it is difﬁcult and inadvisable to try to rupture follicles manually. At ovulation, follicular ﬂuid is expelled and the wall of the follicle collapses. The surface of the ovary may be depressed in this region. The follicular cavity, however, rapidly ﬁlls with blood and approximately 12 hours or less after ovulation the cavity is redistended.