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Additional resources for Activités en orthographe. Français 9e, Divisions prégymnasiale et supérieure
Structural means, does not have any bearing our discussion. 27 One of the main principles determining the distribution of melodies in phonological representation is licensing. Thus, for example, segment decomposition typically occurs under weak licensing, which correlates with weak prosodic contexts. For vowels, it is the unstressed position which has weak licensing. 28 The processes of Final Obstruent Devoicing (FOD) and Regressive Voice Assimilation (RVA) discussed in the previous chapter are good examples of decomposition and composition with respect to voicing phenomena.
31 Another aspect of phonetic interpretation in GP which is embodied in Laryngeal Realism seems to follow from the consequences of universality discussed in Kay, Lowenstamm and Vergnaud (1990: 194). ’ However, the phonological practice shows that this claim may have been too strong. For example, if a laryngeally unmarked stop were always to be realized as voiceless unaspirated, then instances of phonetic / interpretational (passive) voicing in English or German would necessarily call for a different phonological representation.
This asymmetry, as mentioned above, may follow from the general phonetic fact that both perceptually and articulatorily it is difficult to contrast fully voiced with slightly voiced objects, or, to put it differently, to control degrees of voicing. , Halle and Stevens (1971). For example, the same degree of stiffening of the vocal cords results in the voicelessness of consonants but in high pitch in vowels. For voicing to be maintained or initiated, stiffening of vocal cords must be accompanied by higher air pressure across the glottis.