By Ranko Matasović
This grammar may be used with a few warning, not just since it used to be written by means of a linguist who's faraway from being a fluent speaker of Kabardian. it really is principally compilatory in nature, and plenty of examples have been drawn from the present works on Kabardian by means of M. L. Abitov, Mukhadin Kumakhov, and others. despite the fact that, i've got additionally excerpted and analyzed many sentences from the literature, in particular from the Nart corpus (Nārtxar, 1951, Nārtxar, 2001), and a few examples have been elicited from local audio system. even if i've got relied seriously at the released scholarly works on Kabardian, my interpretations of the knowledge are often very diverse from these within the on hand literature. i've got attempted to process the Kabardian language from a typological standpoint, evaluating its linguistic positive aspects, that could seem unusual to audio system of Indo-European languages, to comparable gains present in different languages of the area.
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Extra resources for A Short Grammar of East Circassian (Kabardian)
34 Cp. Gišev 1985: 41-57, where arguments to the contrary are disputed. 35 Matasović: A Short Grammar of Kabardian The suffix positions: 1. intransitivity 2. tense 3. mood potential evidential 4. negation interrogativity We shall first deal with the prefixal verbal morphology, and then with the suffixal morphology. -neg. work-ger. -eat-NOM sin-af. -know "by god, I don't know" The two verbal negations differ in scope: the prefixed -mə- is the narrow scope negation, with thescope just over the verbal nucleus, while the suffixed negation -q'əm negates the whole sentence (including the embedded participles, infinitives, and/or gerunds).
Af. "I met you there" Some intransitive verbs have an "integrated" marker for the 3rd person object; they are "bipersonal" (Rus. dvuxličnye) 45, but their indirect object (oblique argument) is always in the 3rd person singular. The verb sən "to swim" is of this type: s-ya-s-ā-ś "I swam", w-ya-s-ā-ś, "you swam", ya-s-ā-ś "he swam", d-ya-s-ā-ś "we swam", f-ya-s-ā-ś "you swam", ya-s-ā-ś "they swam". It seems that yəwəč'ən "to kill" behaves in the same way (in opposition to the transitive wəč'ən).
Versija) and conjunctivity/comitative (Rus. sojuznost')), reflexivity, reciprocity, involuntative, and evidentiality. Active and stative verbs are distinguished systematically, and many of the mentioned categories do not apply to stative verbs. Sn The prefix positions can be seen in the following matrix: 1. dir. 2. reflexive/reciprocal 3. version 4. conjunctivity 5. pot. 6. neg. 7. caus. invol. , q'ə-z-aw-ġā-k'wa "I make him come". As can be gathered from the scheme above, the personal prefixes can be inserted at several points in the prefix chain, but two fixed rules apply: firstly, the prefix for the absolutive argument (the "lowest ranking macrorole", see below) precedes all other prefixes, and secondly, the prefix referring to the agent (if there is one) is closest to the verbal root.